Send up next the burton pendants which shackle to bolts in the under side of the trestle-trees. Using girtlines from each after-horn of the cross-trees, and an eye girtline from the topmast tenon, proceed to get up the shrouds and stays in the following order, after the manner employed in getting up lower rigging, except thattwopair, starboard and port shrouds, come up together.
First. Starboard and port shrouds, in pairs.
Third. Fore-and-aft-stays and jib-stay, in one, the latter uppermost.
The ends of these shrouds and stays are allowed to hang down outside the top in their proper directions, on each side, forward, or aft as the case may be.
To Send up the Topmast Cap, Fig. 326. Shift the girtlines from the cross-trees to the topmast-head, lashing the blocks below the tenon; send down the ends for the topmast-cap, which is sent up from forward with the after-part uppermost, the ends of the girtlines hitched to
If the topmast is fidded, and topgallant-mast is not aloft, riggers frequently handle the topmast-cap as follows, particularly in stripping ship. A suitable small spar (studding-sail yard) is pointed through the round hole of the cap and the cap is securely lashed to the spar. The spar is controlled by two whips whose blocks are lashed to the masthead below the cap. The whip ends secure to the spar, one near its heel and the other a little below the cap andnotin the same vertical plane as the first whip. By means of these whips the spar (and cap) can be lifted and slued as required.
Reeve the topmast-stays through the bees in the bowsprit, turn them around the thimbles of their hearts and clap luffs on them to steady the mast when fidding; reeve off also the laniards of the backstays, and tend the stays and backstays while the mast is being swayed aloft by the top-tackles and fidded. The topmast being fidded, reeve off the laniards of the topmast rigging and prepare to set up.
To Set up Topmast Rigging. Hook the lower blocks of a rigging luff to a strap on the laniard; tail the upper block to the shroud six or eight feet above the upper dead-eye, hook the top burton into the end of the luff. Having given the mast the proper stay, by means of the luffs on the topmast stays and backstays, set up the shrouds in a manner similar to that adopted in the case of lower rigging. Stays, backstays, and shrouds should all be first set up temporarily, and later for a full due, in the order named.
For light rigging a runner may be used instead of a rigging luff, in setting up, Fig. 316, the top-burton being hooked in the thimble of the runner. Avoid the use of catspaws in the laniards, unless the ends are long enough to admit of cutting off afterwards. The rigging being set up, lash on the sheer poles, secure the ends of the laniards and come up the rackings on them. Lash on the futtock staffs below the eyes of the topmast rigging andinsideof the shrouds. These are of rod iron, well served and leathered in order not to chafe the topgallant rigging which passes over them in its course to the top. Seize the forward catharpin legs on each side to the forward shroud, and the after-ones abaft the mast to the after-shroud on the opposite side. The two catharpins thus cross abaft the mast
Sometimes, after the lower and topmasts are rigged, a tarpaulin coat, fitting snugly, is placed over the eyes of the rigging, as a protection from weather. This answers very well, and if painted, does not detract from the neat appearance of the mast-head.
Jib-Boom. Being in the stream, bring the boom alongside with the head forward, and reeve a spare piece of rope (studding-sail halliards if at hand), through the sheave-holes in each end, a sufficient number of times, and make it fast. Overhaul down the main pendant-tackle, and hook it into a cuckold’s neck formed in the bight of the span, having the boom to hang slightlyheelheavy. Sway it up, bearing it clear of the ship’s side – ease it inboard, and land it in the gangway; unreeve the span, and carry the boom forward, pointing it through the bowsprit-cap, and reeve the heel-rope, which is done as follows: Pass one end through a single block, hooked to an eye-bolt on one side of the bowsprit-cap; thence through the sheave in the heel, and clinch it to the other bolt, on the opposite side of the cap. Man the heel-rope, and rig the boom out, until the shoulders are just forward of the bowsprit end.* Put on the band if not already on. This band is fitted with eyes on each side and underneath for the jib-guys and martingale.
The foot-ropes are fitted with eyes in their outer ends which seize to the jib-guys close to the shackle on the band. The foot-ropes are then stopped out to the guys, that on the starboard side for a sufficient distance to keep it clear of the flying jib-boom. Turks-heads are worked on the foot-ropes at equal distances, to keep the men from slipping on account of the inclination, orsteeve, of the boom. The inner ends of the foot-ropes are formed into eyes which are seized to the upper bolts in the bowsprit cap after the jib-boom has been rigged out. Thus fitted, the foot-ropes should be long enough to allow the men who go on the boom to stand with the lower parts of their breasts against it. Reeve the jibstay through the inner sheave-hole of the boom end. Sway the dolphin-striker to its place by means of a tackle from the bowsprit cap and a whip from the jib-boom end and hook it to its eye-bolt; shackle to it the lower end of the jib-martingale and the back-ropes. Fig. 333 shows jib-boom end, and Plate 51 general view of head-booms with detail of whisker and dolphin striker. Place the jib-guys
* In handling a large boom, it will be necessary to have a tackle from the fore-stay hooked to a strap on the head of the boom, to raise and guide it through the cap.
Whiskersare swayed on board with a tackle from the forward swifter. A whisker is got into place ready for rigging by means of a jigger from the fore-topmast stay, hooked to a strap about one-third the length of the whisker from its outer end, and another jigger from the bowsprit cap to its inner end. When far enough out the whisker is hooked to a bolt in the bees. When hooked, put on the jib guy, which is fitted with a neat eye to o over the whisker end, and then the whisker jumper. This jumper goes over the whisker with an eye, and sets up to the cutwater, or it may lead through a clump block on the cutwater to the ship’s head where it is set up.
When the flying-jib-boom has been placed and rigged, the flying-jib-guys are rove through a hole in the whisker, or through a thimble strapped (with wire rope) to the whisker, outside of all, thimble on top. Jib and flying-jib guys set up to the bows, or cathead, with three scored hearts.
The whisker being rigged, slack the stay jiggers, which serve as lifts, and haul on the jib-guys to bring the whiskers athwartship. For detail of rigging on whisker, see Plate 51, Fig. 305, where standing part of forward guy is omitted to avoid confusion.
Topgallant Masts. Get the topgallant-mast on board by means of the mast rope. Hook the topgallant top-block to a bolt in the topmast cap, and reeve the mast rope first through the block, then through the thimble of a stout lizard, the tail of which is hitched in the royal sheave-hole; lastly, through the sheave in the heel, and cast an overhand knot in the end, or hitch it around the mast to its own part. When the topgallant mast is on board, and up and down forward of the lower mast, secure it there temporarily by a lashing around the head from the lower stay collar, passed clear of the mast rope; cast off the hitch in the end of the mast rope and carry the standing part aloft, hitching it to a bolt in the topmast cap, on the side opposite to where the block is hooked. Fig. 327. Set taut the mast rope, cast off the stop at the stay collar and sway the mast aloft, bending a tripping-line to a bolt in the heel to guy the mast clear on its passage up. Point the head of the royal-mast and sway it up three or four feet above the topmast cap, taking off the lizard, which is now of no further use. When the topsail yard is in its place, thegate, a broad iron
For detail of slings see Fig. 336, of yard-arm, 339.
Quarter Blocksare iron-strapped, with friction-rollers, shackled to bands on the quarters of the yard, underneath. In case of accident compelling the use of a rope strap, it should be single with lashing eyes. There should be separate bands and blocks for the clewlines, as shown in Fig. 336. If not, the quarter block is either double for the topgallant sheet and topsail clewline, or treble, if the topsail reef tackle leads under the yard.
Burton Straps. Iron bands a few feet inside of the yard-arms, with an eye in the upper part to which the top burton may be hooked.
Bolt for Bead-Earing, Fig. 372, Plate 71. A bolt on the forward side of the yard, just inside the shoulder and well up on the yard; or it may be an eye in the shoulder band.
Backer for Head-Earing, Fig. 372, Plate 71, is a broad piece of sennit nailed around the yard, inside and. clear of the topgallant sheet, and fitted with a thimble in its hanging end. The head of the topsail is hauledoutby the turns of the head-earing taken through the bolt and heldupon the yard by the turns taken through the backer, as will be described more fully under BENDING SAILS. For backer, see Fig. 372.
Jack Staysfor bending are of rod iron, those for reefing, on the topsail yard, may be of wire rope, rove through staples abaft the bending jack-stay on the upper part of the yard, outer ends going over the yard-arm with eyes, the inner ends set up to each other in the slings by
Instead of the eye the outer ends of foot-ropes may be fitted with hooks connecting to an eye-bolt on the after-side of the shoulder-band, or else as described under FLEMISH HORSES. Inner ends of foot-ropes omitted in Fig. 336 to avoid confusion.
Stirrupsare fitted with an eye in the lower end (no thimble), through which the foot-rope reeves and to which it is seized. The upper ends, fitted with small eyes, are seized to the jack-stay staples.
Flemish Horses. These are spliced around a thimble on the pacific iron for that purpose, and the eye in the other end secured on top of the yard to the jack-stay, the length of the yardarm inside of the sheave hole, with a rose-seizing. These are foot-ropes for the yard-arm men when reefing, &c. It would be better, as is already done on some modern ships, to do away with the flemish horses by carrying out the foot-rope to the pacific iron, fitting the necessary extra stirrups.*
Tye Blocksare iron-strapped and connected by a bolt to a band around the slings of the yard; or, in case of two tyes, the tye-blocks shackle to bands fitted at the slings, at a distance apart equal to the diameter of the topmast. The bands are joined by a span, which is used for the purchase to hook in when sending the yard up and down. In case of an accident to the straps of tye-blocks, requiring them to be fitted with rope-straps, it is well to remember thattwo single strapsare needed to make the block stand fair on the yard.
Parrel. A parrel fitted of wire rope is commonly used. This consists of a long and a short leg, leathered singly, marled together, and again leathered in the wake of
* The flemish horse was introduced when lifts and brace-block straps went over the yard-arm with eyes, and it enabled these to be removed or put on without coming up anything but the inboard lashing of the flemish horse. Now that all this gear is differently fitted, a separate outboard foot-rope is superfluous, and is going out of use.
Liftsare four-stranded, hemp, and blacked. Hook to the shoulder-band, reeve through lower sheave of a sister block seized in between the swifter and next shroud in the topmast rigging, just below the eyes, thence to the top, where they turn up through clump blocks. Set up with jiggers.
Jewel Blocks. Single, rope or iron-strapped, hook to the pacific iron with sister hooks. Not put in place until the studding sail gear is rove off.
Tyes. Flexible wire rope. The lower end has a thimble spliced in, to which hooks the fly-block. Passing through the mast-head gin-blocks, they reeve through the tye-block on the yard fromout, in, thence up through the topmast trestle-trees, and made fast around the mast-head. The heel of the topgallant-mast is scored out on purpose to admit the tye.
Small ships have a single tye only, which in this case reeves through a sheave in the topmast, in stead of a gin-block. Bell’s purchase (see TOPSAIL HALLIARDS) is used in connection with such tyes.
The length of the tyes should be such that the fly-blocks will be square with the lower cap when the yard is down.
See that the yard is fitted with boom irons, reefing cleats, saddles (inboard from sheave holes) for topgallant sheets, &c., and prepare for sending it aloft.*
Hook a stout double purchase from the topmast-head to the tye-band (or a strap) in the slings of the yard, Fig. 335.
* It may be noted here that the iron work, bands, &c., described in connection with the yard fittings are all in place, as a rule, before the yard is sent on board, and are enumerated only to complete the list of the fittings. In former times nearly all of the above described fittings were of rope.
N.B.-This routine supposes the yard to be lying in theportgangway, with thestarboardyard-armforward.
Lower Yards. Of the many methods suggested for getting a lower yard on board, the following may be selected as the safest and most seamanlike:
The yard is towed alongside, on thestarboardside, with theportend forward. Top up the fish-boom, Fig. 337, by its topping lift T, the upper block being hooked at the futtock band. Swing the boom around to the starboard side with the usual forward and after guys. (For description of fish-davit, see GROUND TACKLE.) Should there be no sheave in the boom, as at A, lash a block at that point. Lash together two large single blocks, as at B and C. Reeve a pendant through A and B, securing the outboard end to the head of the boom, and take a turn with the other end of the pendant at the sheet bitts.
Through the block C reeve a hawser, make fast to the bight above C the lower block of a treble purchase from the topmast-head. The other end of the hawser is secured at the slings of the yard, and stopped along the port yard-arm to the pacific iron, with rope stops.
Protect the hammock rail where the yard is to be landed by blocking up in the netting above the level of the rail.
When ready, tow the after (starboard) yard-arm out from the ship, keep it end on to the vessel with a guy from forward. Walk away with the treble purchase, and as the
The guy-blocks are iron-strapped and hook to the band.
When the boom is rigged out in port a life-line is seized to the topping-lift, about breast-high from the boom, with its inner end secured inboard in the chains, in line with the boom.
When the boom is not in use it is hauled alongside by the after-guy, and rests in cranes, shipped for the purpose in the waist, the topping-lift being unhooked and triced up out of the way.
The lower boom is so called at sea, and is known as theswinging-boom in port.
Topmast Studding-Sail Booms. Round, spruce, or yellow pine spars, unpainted excepting their projecting ends. The outer end is fitted with a permanent tack block, swivelled upon it, Fig. 347, and in line with the axis of the boom, or else there is an iron pin driven through the boom vertically, near its outer end, Fig. 348.
The inner end, or heel, has a deep score for a heel-lashing when the boom is rigged out. Outside of this score there are two holes bored in the boom, one up and down, and one fore and aft, Fig. 347. A grommet strap is worked through each hole, one having a thimble for the in-and-out jigger, and the other a thimble for the tricing-line.
The inner strap is fitted through the hole bored fore and aft, in line with the score. It is used for the boom tricing-line. Splice a heel-rope around the neck of this inner strap.
Unclamp the quarter iron, Fig. 347b, on the yard, and prepare for sending the boom aloft.
Carry out a whip on the fore-yard, secure it well up on the fore-lift. Hook a clew-jigger from the lower cap to one of the grommets on the heel of the boom; the whip from the fore-yard is hitched to the boom far enough out to clear
The above blocks are taken off in port, except the swivelling tack-block, which, when fitted, is a fixture.
Clamp the quarter-irons, hook the boom tricing-line, rig out to the square mark and take off the clew jigger and whip. Lastly, seize a hook horizontally on the yard, just inside the burton strap, with the point outboard, for the purpose of securing the boom, when setting the sail,* and shift the in-and-out jigger ready for use.
Top-gallant Studding-sail Booms, Fig. 349, are rigged nearly in the same manner, but have no halliard-block at the outer end, and the tricing-line goes directly through the inner hole in the boom (no grommet), with a Mathew Walker knot in the end. There is no quarter-iron; instead, a quarter-strap of rope may be fitted. This forms a figure eight around the yard and boom, seized where it crosses on the yard. One end is split to form two eyes. The other end has one eye (all eyes leathered), and the two ends are held together, when the boom is rigged out, by a toggle. The toggle is taken out as soon as the boom is rigged in, to be ready for tricing up. Fig. 350.
Instead of the rope quarter-strap, some ships use a rope jackstay, seized to the eye of the topsail lift, and set up to its opposite in the slings of the yard. In this case a becket is fitted in the heel of the boom, which toggles to a travelling bull’s-eye on the jackstay.
Thetricing-lineleads from the top up through a single block seized to the forward swifter of the topmast rigging, close up to the eyes, thence down to the boom, where it is rove through a single block, and is then secured to the heel of the boom. When it is required to rig the boom out, the tricing-line is converted into anin-and-out jigger, thus:- The tricing-line is let go in the top, and the single block, through which it passes at the heel of the boom, is taken out on the yard, taking out the bight of the tricing-line with it, and hooks to a thimble on the yard.
The boom, when required for setting the sail, is secured
* The heel-lashing is passed over the hook, and back through the score in the boom, and two half-hitches taken with the end around all parts.
Besides enabling us to measure for and cut standing rigging, a fore-and-aft draft of the ship gives the length of all running rigging. To measure for main-topsail clew-lines, for example, supposing them to be double, take twice the distance from the clew of the main-topsail, Fig. 284, Plate 43, to the quarter-block on the topsail-yard, to which add the distance thence to the deck, plus end enough to lead out; double this to get the other clew-line and divide by six to reduce it to fathoms, and so for any other rope. One half of each upper yard should be represented as on the cap, in order to measure for lifts, &c.
When a rope leads direct and is not exposed to unnecessary friction, it is said to have a clear or afair lead, an extremely desirable condition, and one too frequently neglected.
Rope supplied in coil has had turns hove in it in the coiling. To get these turns out, the rope must be “thorough-footed.” To do this, if the rope is right-handed, lay the coil flat, with that end inside which goes around “with the sun” (to the right), now haul that end up through the coil and. coil it down, left-handed. Then dip the new upper end down through and coil again left-handed, and repeat a third time. The rope is then stretched, and the gear cut and rove off. First in importance may be mentioned:
Fore-Braces, Fig. 351. Hemp, left-handed, standing part of wire to extend forward of smoke-stack. Standing part hooks to eye-bolts in the bibbs or to the neck of the brace-block bolt at the bibbs, as in Fig. 351b, thence through blocks on the yard fromup, down, back through other blocks on the outside of bibbs and down to sheaves in the fife-rail (usually fromaft, forward).
Main-Braces. Standing part hooked into the bumpkins aft, or into an eye in the breech of the block, then through brace-blocks fromdown, up, back to others on the bumpkin (insidethe standing parts) and through sheaves or leaders in the bulwarks.
On board large ships where there is much drift to the
The same has been found needful on board very long ships in the main rigging to avoid fouling the waist davits.
The timenoguy is seized to the standing part of the brace, the hauling part reeving through a thimble.
Cross-jack Braces. The standing parts hooked into the strap of adoubleblock*** hooked to an eye-bolt on each side of the mainmast, in a line with the yard****-thence to the brace-blocks fromdown, up, and back to the inner sheaves of those on the mainmast.
Fore-topsail Braces. Standing parts fitted with eye-splices lashed together abaft the main topmast-head, laid along in the doublings of the collar of the main topmast-stay, and stopped down on each side to and below the crotch, to avoid chafe from the foot of the sail and brace blocks; thence forward anddownthrough the brace-blocks to clump-blocks, seized to the main-stay, Fig. 351, at the fork. Thence through blocks at the bibbs to the main fife-rail. Lead there through sheaves, usually fromforward, aft.
Main-topsail Braces. Standing part hooks to an iron traveller, which moves up and down the mizzen topmast to shift the strain lower down as it becomes greater (if the mizzen-topsail is reefed or taken in), thence to the yard and down to hanging blocks on the mizzen-mast, about half way between the top and the deck.
Mizzen-topsail Braces. The standing parts hook to the strap of a block at each side of the main cap; thence to the yard fromdown, up, back to the blocks, and so down through the lubber’s-hole to the deck.
All the above braces are of hemp, left-handed.
Fore-top-gallant Bracesare usually rove single, the standing parts going over the yard-arms with
* The same principle may he variously applied, as to a main-tack, the sheet of a schooner’s lug foresail, &c.
** A timenoguy is any piece of rope placed to prevent rigging from chafing or fouling.
*** The outer sheave is for the mizzen top-bowline.
**** Otherwise, the angular action of the brace would cant the yard either up or down, and consequently slack one or the other of the mizzen-topsail leeches.
Mizzen-top-gallant Braces. Through small blocks, underneath the main-topmast cross-trees, or seized to the main-topmast backstays. Brace single, manilla rope.
Fore-royal Bracesare single (without whips), and rove like the top-gallant braces, except that they are taken to the main-top-gallant mast-head. The blocks are now generally made of metal, and hook to eyes in the funnel, or are seized to the top-gallant rigging.
Main-royal Braces. Same as fore-royal braces, except taken tomizzen-top-gallant mast-head.
Mizzen-royal Braces. Single. and through sheaves in the after-chock of the main-topmast cross-trees. All royal braces are of manilla rope.
Topmast Studding-sail-boom Bracesmay be either single, going over the boom-end with a running-eye and leading through a tail-block on the forward swifter of the main rigging; or double, with a pendant and whip leading to the main rigging.
Preventer Bracesare fitted with apendantandwhip, the former going round the yard, hooking to its own part, and the latter led to the deck, well aft, when for bad weather. When rove for action, they are led forward.
Topsail-Halliards. Where double tyes and gins are used, the standing part of the halliards is spliced to a single block (which is iron-strapped and fitted with a swivel), in the channels, on each side, and then rove through a double one hooked to a thimble in the end of its respective tye. A double purchase is used in heavy ships.*
* Bell’s purchase, as usually fitted for the mizzen-topsail halliards. The tye used is single, of flexible wire, reeving through the sheave in the topmast. The four blocks are single (see Fig. 354); block A shackles into tye abaft the mast, blocks B and C are in the after part of the mizzen chains, one on each side of the ship; block D is at the height of the lower mast-head when the topsail-yard is on the cap, but close down to the leading block on deck when the yard is hoisted. The parts marked 1 and 2 are securely seized together at A. Power gained is as 7 to 1, friction not considered. Fig. 355 shows a similar purchase for heavier yards.
Royal-Halliardsare best, if fitted with a gun-tackle purchase, thus: The yard-rope, being rove in a leader on deck, is passed through a single block fitted with a strap having an eye, and toggled on abreast the top, as represented in Fig. 352, Plate 65. In the event, then, of having to send the yard down, it is only necessary to take off the, block, which will leave the yard-rope clear for running.
The strap of the block may be a temporary one and made of a selvagee and the yard-rope, Fig. 352 (a).
Throat-Halliards. If for a spanker or trysail, they usually consist of a purchase rove through double and single blocks; the former hooked to a bolt on the under side of the after lower chock, and the latter to a band and eye-bolt at the jaws of the gaff; the hauling part leading through the upper block fromaft forward, to the deck. In brigantines and vessels with a boom-mainsail, both blocks are double,
Peak-Halliards. The best plan for peak-halliards is to reeve them as follows: Hook the standing part into the breech of the mast-head block (which is double), and reeve thence through theinnerblock of the gaff, fromaft forward; then up through theportsheave of the mast-head block, out through the block at the gaff-end, fromforward aft; and lastly, back to the sheave of the mast-head block.
The merit of this system will be apparent, if we consider that the hauling part, by being rovelast, at the gaff-end, permits the peak to drop the instant the halliards are let go.
The standing part may be rove through thethirdsheave of the block (treble) at mast-head, and have a small single block spliced in the end, through which reeve a whip; this enables the peak to be pulled up taut. The latter plan is adopted by all large schooners and sloops, and is on the same principle as applying a purchase to the standing part of the main brace.
Storm-Staysail Halliards. The fore-storm staysail-stay, fitted of rope of the proper size, having in its upper end a stout iron toggle covered with leather, toggles into the crotch of the fore-stay. The lower end, after passing through the hanks of the sail, reeves through a stout bull’s-eye strapped to the bowsprit, and sets up with a luff. The halliards are sometimes a luff, and sometimes a gun-tackle
Jib arid Topmast-Staysail Halliardsare rove through the upper sheave of iron fiddle-blocks, hooked to a bolt in each side of the topmast trestle-trees, thence through hanging blocks in the after-part of the trestle-trees, to keep them clear of the topsail tyes and lifts. The jib-halliards are double, and reeve through a block in the head of the sail, with the standing part half-hitched and lashed to the crotch of the stay collar. Halliards of manilla. The staysail-halliards are single, with sister-hooks to the head-cringle and a whip, the block of which comes just below the hanging block when the sail is taken in. Pendant hemp, whip manilla.
The lower sheaves of the fiddle-blocks serve for the topsail buntlines.
The jib-halliards should be led on thestarboardside, and those for the staysail on the port-a rule which is self-evident, when we remember that the latter is set on theporttopmast-stay. The method of fitting these halliards withwhips, is not approved of by seamen generally, on account of the liability to tangle and get foul in hauling down the sail; and the obvious necessity of separating the parts widely from each other.
NOTE. Whenever a whip is used, as in the foregoing, it is well to use an iron-strapped swivel-block, splicing the pendant into the eye of the swivel, to avoid cable-laying.
Flying-Jib Halliards, manilla, are rove single, through a small iron fiddle-block hooked to an eye in the lower rim of the funnel (on theportside) under the eyes of the rigging, and connected to the head-cringle on the sail by means of sister-hooks. In large ships, however, they are sometimes rove double, and the standing part seized to the splice of the stay on theunderside. The small iron fiddle-blocks are for flying-jib halliards, topgallant buntlines, and topgallant bunt-jigger.
All iron hanging blocks, like those above described for head halliards, as well as those for the topsail-tyes, are commonly known as “gin” blocks.
Gaff-topsail Halliardsare single, and in barks and ships, are rove through a sheave in the topgallant mast-head, and attached to the yard with a fisherman’s bend; or if the sail is triangular in shape, to the headcringle, with a sheet-bend. On board of schooners and hermaphrodite brigs, they are rove through a sheave in the topmast-head.
Lower Studding-Sail Halliards. Theouter halliardsreeve through the lower sheave of a fiddle-block, which is strapped with a long pendant, and hooks to
By Plate 32, the halliard-block may hook to the link in the crescent on the topmast cap.
Topgallant Studding-Sail Halliardsare rove on each side, through a single block (which is fitted with a rope-strap and tail), hitched above the eyes of the topgallant rigging; thenceabaft, to the jewel-block, and so to the top, where they are bent to the studding-sail yard, in the same manner as the halliards previously mentioned, the hoisting part being sent down to the deck abaft, and clear of all.
The halliard-blocks at the mast-head are much neater when fitted with lashing-eyes.
All the studding-sail halliards are manilla.
Fore and Main Sheets. The standing parts are connected to eye-bolts on the outside of the bulwarks with sister-hooks, justforwardof the sheaves for the hauling parts; thence they are roveupthrough the blocks at the clews of the sail, and back, inboard through the bulwark sheaves. Hemp, tapered. Fig. 357.
Topsail Sheets. When double, as on board of first-rates, the standing parts are clinched around their own parts and go around the yard-armsoutsideof all, and thence rove fromout in, through the sheet blocks to the yard sheaves, and the quarter-blocks in the slings; being led, lastly, to the bitts on deck, forward of the mast. If single, they are simply secured to the clew-cringle with hooks; but where chain is used, they are connected by small stout iron shackles.
Topsail sheets are usually hemp, Fig. 356.
Storm-Staysail Sheetsare temporary purchases, and consist usually of stout luffs hooked (and moused) to the clew-cringles, and brought well aft, in order to form, as near as possible, a line with the foot of the sail. The hauling part should then lead from theforward-block, by which a greater purchase is obtained; although the reverse of this is advocated by many seamen, on account of the difficulty sometimes experienced in getting a turn with the belaying-end, in consequence of the flapping of the sail; but this objection will be entirely overcome, if the sheet be hauled aft, and the foot taut, before hoisting.
Trysail Sheets. The best plan for fitting these is to have a pendant attached to the clew of the sail for the sheet to hook into, as it saves the trouble of “lighting up” the blocks to hook and unhook in shifting the sheet, as in wearing ship, &c. The sheet is an ordinary luff and hooks well aft to an eye-bolt in the deck.
Jib wad Topmast-Staysail Sheets. Both of these are fitted with a hemp pendant and manilla gun-tackle purchase, as follows:
The pendant, which is wormed and served, shackles into the clew-iron, and has a single block spliced into the inboard end. The other block of the purchase hooks to an eyebolt in the deck. A third single block is often hooked into the deck abaft the purchase-block, as a leader for the hauling part.**
The deck blocks for the staysail sheets are forward of those for the jib.
The standing parts of these head sheets hook into beckets in the breech of the pendant block.
Flying-jib Sheets, may be single, but are generally
* In vessels where the quarter-blocks arethreefold, the topgallant sheet is rove in themiddlesheave.
** The position of the bolts and blocks (or sheaves) must be such, that the sheet, when taut, shall form a line at right angles with the luff of the sail-for otherwise, either the foot or the leech would become slack, and the jib thus be deprived of a great portion of its efficacy. Head sheets should have a cuckold’s neck in the end to prevent unreeving, by accident, as in a squall.
Spanker Sheets, are rove inonewith the guy. The standing parts are hooked to the shoulder-band, and rove to the (double) block in each quarter; thence through the sheet-blocks on the boom fromforward aft, and back to the second sheaves of the double blocks.
Boom-mainsail Sheets. In small craft, as schooners, &c., a purchase of double-blocks, and working on a traveller, is used; but in larger vessels, two (attached by separate straps, and hooked to eye-bolts in each quarter) are employed to manage the boom-the hauling parts in either case leading from the upper block. This latter method is by far the better, as every one who has had to “jibe” a boom-mainsail, with a single sheet and crotch-ropes, in heavy weather, will bear witness to.
Gaff-topsail Sheetsare formed of a single piece of rope, which is middled, and the bight passed through the clew-cringle of the sail; the ends being thrust also through the bight, are led down on each side of the gaff to a belaying cleat on the boom, near the jaws.
Studding-sail Sheets. Those for thelowerstudding-sail consist of a single piece of rope, passed through the inner clew-cringle like those for the gaff-topsail (or the two parts may be seized together), and in setting the sail, one sheet is rove fromforward aft, through a thimble or block on the goose-neck, in order to bring the clew close down to the boom, and the other led inboard over the hammock-rail, on the forecastle, by which to haul on board the sail, when taking it in.
In fitting atopmaststudding-sail, two sheets are also required, which are attached to the clew in the same manner as those for the lower studding-sail. One (called theshort sheet), being passedforwardof the topsail, andaftthrough a thimble (seized to the jack-stay or quarter-iron) on the outer quarter of the lower yard, into the top, where it is belayed to a cleat; and the other, ordeck-sheet, being led to the forecastle,forwardof the yard. The sheets and down-haul are always made up with the sail.
Thetop-gallantstudding-sail sheet is simply spliced into the clew of the sail (having parcelling on it for two or three feet below, to avoid chafe from the foot-rope of the topsail-yard), and led into the top, where it is hitched around the
Fore and Main Tacksare hemp, tapered, rove double, Fig. 357 (except now and then on board of small vessels, where they are single). The standing part, which is wormed and served for a fathom or so from the end (as a protection from wet), is hooked to the bumpkin* and rove through the tack-block at the clew of the sail-then back through a leading-block inside of the standing part, and a hole in the bulwarks.
Studding-sail Tacks, manilla, hook to the tacks of their respective sails, and are rove fromin out, through the blocks at the boom-ends. That for thetopmaststudding-sail is led aft, through a tail-block on the forward-swifter of the main-rigging; and the tack of thetop-gallantstudding-sail, through a leader tailed around the dead-eye of the after topmast shroud.
The top-gallant studding-sail tack isbent, not hooked.
NOTE. The double block in the main rigging for the tack and boom-brace should not be tailed to the shrouds, as it hauls them out of line and stretches them unduly. It should rather hook to the eye of a long pendant, which hooks far enough aft in the main-chains to form a line with the tack, and passes through alizardat the proper place in the main rigging.
Spanker and Boom-mainsail Tack (Lashings), are passed through the cringle (into which they are spliced), and an eye-bolt on the upper side of the boom.
The spanker-tack lashing is more frequently passed around the spindle of the spanker-mast step.
Trysail-tack Lashingsare passed around the foot of the trysail mast, on a line with the foot of the sail, or through an eye-bolt in the after part of the fife-rail.
Where the trysail is fitted “railway-fashion,” the lower end of the grooved batten has a chock to keep the sliding hanks in. This chock has an eye for the tack lashings.
NOTE. In laying-to, in a small vessel, under a balanced-reefed (boom) mainsail, the tack of the sail should be lashed up to the jaws of the gaff, and the whole hoisted several feet up the mast by means of the throat-halliards. In this way the sail is elevated to the wind above the waves, and
* Themaintack hooks to a bolt and block in each of the waterways, or deck, forward of the gangway, being rove like the fore, through the block on the clew of the sail, standing part forward.
The flying-jib tack is fitted in precisely the same way, the bail being held in its place by the pin of the sheave for the flying-jib stay. Fig. 332.
Both bails have projecting eyes, well down, for the down-haul blocks.
For the staysail is fitted a long strap, with sister-hooks in the upper end. The strap is seized to the topmast-stay. and has drift enough for the foot of the staysail to clear the heel of the jib-boom. The hooks in the strap hook into the staysail tack thimble.
This does away with the necessity of tack lashings.
Clew-Garnetsare used only on the courses. Lead from the deck to the clew-garnet block under the yard fromin out, through the clew block in the sail, standing part taken between the head of the sail and the yard, and made fast to the arm of the truss.
Topsail Clewlines. For small ships may be single, or single with a whip. For large vessels rove as follows: From the deck through the forward sheave of the quarter-block on the topsail-yard, thence through the clew-line block on the sail, the standing part taken up between the head of the sail and the yard, and made fast to the neck of the tye-block.
It would be far better to have a separate block in the quarter of the yard for the clewline, the same as is fitted for clew-garnets. This enables the clewline to be unhooked and shifted to the cap (as is often done) without interfering with the topgallant sheets. Moreover, such a block has enough play to give a fairer lead to the clewline when the sail is bellied out by a strong breeze, and the sail is always hauled up snugger. Fig. 336 shows such a block, fitted.
Topgallant and Royal Clewlines, are both single, are bent to the clews of the sails, and rove through the quarter-blocks of their respective yards, and thence to the deck by way of the lubber’s-hole. Topgallant clewlines rove double in large ships, standing part secured to the neck of the quarter-block.
Topsail clew-jiggers. Like those for the courses. They are found very convenient in taking the clews well up above, and forward of the yard, greatly facilitating the operation of furling. Upper block hooks under the topmast trestle-trees, or to a strap fitted around the forward cross-tree, close in.
The lower blocks of clew-jiggers are secret and fitted with a pendant and sister-hooks. All clew-jiggers should be long enough to reach to the deck.
Fore and Main Buntlines. Usually rove double (i.e., withtwolegs oneachside), a double block hooked under the top and aswivel-block are used in reeving off each pair of legs. The swivel-block resembles a fiddle-block in appearance, except that both shells are of equal size, and their ends connected by a swivel.
Reeve the standing part of the buntline through the upper sheave of its swivel-block, then take both ends of the standing parts through the sheaves of the block under the top, fromaft forward, and toggle these ends, which are fitted with eyes, to toggles on the foot of the sail.
Through the lower sheave of the swivel-block is rove a whip, standing part made fast on deck, hauling part led through a sheave in the fife-rail.
Where there is but little drift between the top and the yard for the buntlines (and leechlines) there are fitted instead of blocks under the top a pair of double blocks on each side, hanging by the legs of a short pendant from a bolt in the forward part of the lower cap; sister-hooks in the bight of the pendant hooking to the bolt. The inside double block is for the buntlines, the outboard one is for the leechlines. Fig. 358.
Topsail Buntlinesare single, and rove through thelowersheaves of fiddle-blocks* under the eyes of the
*Uppersheaves of fiddle-blocks at the fore for the jib and fore-topmast stay-sail halliards. At the main and mizzen for topsail bunt jigger and main and mizzen topmast staysail halliards, when rove.
They are sometimes fitted with two legs, one toggled to the foot, the other to the leech of the sail, so that when the sail is taken in, the leech is brought along the yard ready for furling.
Topgallant buntlines have lizards at the slings the same as topsail buntlines.
In small vessels there is but one buntline. It is spliced around a span, both ends of which are toggled to the foot of the sail.
Fore Bowlines. A single rope; the standing part made fast to the breech of a single block, hooked to a span between the fore-stays; the hauling end rove through the bull’s-eye hung from the bowline bridle, back through the block at the stay. In tacking, &c., let go thehaulingend, and re-reeve when on the other tack.
Main Bowlinesconsist of a whip and runner the latter reeving through the thimble in the bridle, and belayed to the fore fife-rail; and the former passing through a block in the end of the runner, led well forward-the standing part of the whip being secured to an eye-bolt at the fore fife-rail, and the reeving end over a pin.
In tacking, when it is required to let go the main bowline the standing part of therunneris cast off, and the whole shifted to the opposite side, ready for reeving.
Top-Bowlines. Theforetoggle to the bridles, and lead forward through blocks hooked to the bees and back, inboard, to the forecastle. Themainreeve through single blocks, connected to bolts in the after rim of the fore-top, and thence to the deck; and themizzen, through the outer sheaves of the cross-jack brace-blocks on the main-mast.
Jib and Flying-Jib Down-hauls, are each
Topmast Staysail Down-haul. Rove same as above, comes inboard on theportside, down-haul block seized to the stay, or an eye-bolt in the bees.
Studding-sail Down-hauls. That for thetopmaststudding-sail is bent to the outer end of the yardarm and rove thence through a thimble on the leech, to the down-haul block at the tack, leading on deck, forward of the foresail, across the forecastle to the opposite side. That for thetopgallantstudding-sail is merely bent to the inner yard-arm of the sail, and led abaft all to the top.
Gail-topsail Down-haul (and Clewline)is led from the after clew of the sail (to which it is bent), through a single block at the head of the sail and thence through the hanks on the mast down to the deck.
Spanker Out-haul. Hooks to an eye in the shoulder-band on the boom, reeves through a block on the clew of the sail and through the sheave in the boom, belaying to a cleat on the boom.
Peak Out-haulconsists of a whip and pendant. The latter is bent to the peak of the sail, rove through the sheave in the gaff, and at a distance equal to the length of the gaff, has a single block turned in, through which the whip is rove. The standing part of the whip is made fast under the top, the running part leads through a single block and thence on deck.
Lower Studding-sail Out-haulis connected by sister-hooks to the outer clew of the sail, and led through a single block (hooked to the boom withcliphooks) to a sheave above that for the guy in the bulwarks.
Gaff-topsail Out-haulis hitched to the clew of the sail, and rove through a sheave at the gaff-end, down to the deck, where it is belayed to a cleat on the boom.
Trysail Out-hauls. They are always single, and attached to the outer head-cringle of the sail, being rove through a sheave in the gaff-end to a leader hooked under the top, and having a whip, which is led thence to the deck.
Topsail reef-tackles reeve up through the lubber’s-hole, through the upper sheave of a sister-block in the eyes of the topmast rigging (or better, through a single block at the topmast cap), thence through a sheave in the topsail yardarm and a secret block on the leech of the topsail. The end of the standing part secures around the pacific-iron.
Sometimes the reef-tackles are fitted thus: The standing part is spliced to the strap of a bloc] shackled to the leech of the sail, below the close-reef bald, thence led upward through the forward sheave of a double block on the yardarm outside of all, down through the block on the leech, up to the remaining sheave of the double block, and so to the after sheave of the quarter-block, and lastly, through the lubber’s-hole to the deck. In this case the quarter-block is three-fold, if there is no special block for the clewline.
Fore and Main Reef-pendantsare hooked to the cringle and rove through a single block with lashing eyes, fitted to the yard just outside the lift. There is a thimble in the other end to which hooks the lower block of the clew-jigger, upper block being hooked at the cap.
Instead of these pendants regular lower reef-tackles are being fitted. These consist of a gun-tackle purchase, the lower block hooked to the reef-cringle, upper block to an eye-bolt on the under forward part of the yard-arm. The hauling end leads to the deck through a block seized to the arm of the truss. These reef-tackles are cut long enough for yard-arm jiggers in bending sail.
These are confined to the courses and are clinched to the leech-outerone about one-third down from the head-earing cringle, and the inner one about two-thirds-and thence rove up through leading blocks on the bending jack-stay* to the inner and outer sheaves (respectively) of a double block hooked under the top, the hauling part of the leech-line reeving through fair leaders on the lower rigging to thesiderack, on deck.
See also lead described under BUNTLINES. Fig. 358.
* These blocks should be so placed that the leech of the sails will be taut along the yard when hauled up, and fitted with straps, which permit them to bang about a foot below the yard-a plan obviating the necessity of attending the leech-lines in bracing up. The hauling parts of the leech-lines, after passing through the double block are often rove through a large thimble or hank tailed to the lower part of the forward futtock-shroud. This keeps them from being jammed between the yard and the rigging when braced up.
Spanker and Trysail Brailsare middled, and the bights secured to their respective eyelet holes on the leech of the sail by cross-seizings, the ends rove through single blocks seized to the hanks on the trysail-mast.
In addition to the brails there is adown-haulfor hauling the head of the sail down on the gaff, rove through a block hooked in the jaws of the gaff. On the opposite side, through a similar block, is rove aclew ropefor taking the clew up toward the throat.
A Slab Lineis sometimes used on the foresail. It is rove through a tail-block secured to the slings of the yard,abaft, and hanging down clear of the yard. The end is taken down abaft the sail and spliced around a span fitted with eyes, which toggle to the inner buntline toggles.
Lower Boom Guys. When double, the standing part of theforwardone has an eye, seizing to the jib-guy just forward of the whisker, seizing to cross at every turn to make the eye lay flat. Rove thence through a single block on the boom, and back to a block with clip hooks at the bees, the hauling part leading inboard to the forecastle. When single, they connect to the boom by sister-hooks, and the block at the boom is omitted. Theafterguys are rove in the same manner, except abaft, to a bolt in the side and a sheave in the chess-tree, just forward of the gangway,
Bunt-jiggersare used for the topsails, courses and sometimes topgallant-sails. Courses and topgallant sails have single bunt-jiggers (orbunt-whips), topsails, a whip and pendant. The topsail bunt-jigger pendant for theforeleads through a single block lashed to the topmast-stay collar, close in to the trestle-tree. For themainandmizzenthrough the starboard and port upper sheaves, respectively, of the fiddle-blocks at the mast-heads. From the block the bunt-jigger leads down forward of the topsail, under the
Topgallant bunt-jiggers lead in a similar way through a small iron block at the topgallant mast-head, and into the top.
In many vessels topsail bunt-jiggers* are led through a single block hooked to the eye-bolt in the heel of the topgallant-mast. This gives a better lead. When sending the mast up and down, the block is transferred to a small strap on the collar of the topmast-stay.
CHANGES IN THE LEAD OF RUNNING RIGGING.
The above list comprises the principal running rigging of men-of-war, together with the leads usually adopted. It sometimes happens that the lead of the gear on deck is modified for special reasons. For instance, in vessels with little quarter-deck space, the hauling part of the fore-brace is often ledaft, and that of the fore-topsail brace,forward. The object is to have the foretopmen nearer to their own parts of the ship when bracing in to reef, and to keep them out of the way of the men on the main-topsail brace.
Lead of Gear about the Smoke-Stack. In making long passages under steam against a prevailing contrary wind, it is not unfrequent to see the lead of gear in the neighborhood of the smoke-stack, temporarily altered for the preservation of the rope. The hauling part of the fore topsail-brace and both parts of the fore-brace are brought down; the standing part of the fore-brace being hooked to a band on the mainmast ten or twelve feet above the deck, or to a launch’s davit, if waist launches are carried.
Main-topsail-sheets are unrove from the quarter-blocks; gear about the mainmast is hauled up and covered with tarpaulins. All this takes little time to do, and in the event of a favoring slant, the gear can be readily rove off for making sail. The head braces have a fair lead when shifted as above described, and if a favoring breeze freshens, or seems likely to hold, preventer braces can be clapped on, and the regular ones shifted to their proper places aloft without shortening sail.
Temporary changes similar to the above are unobjectionable, in so far as they affect the lead aloft. But care
* The termbunt-jiggeris preferred by many officers to the more correct word,bunt-whip. The latter is likely to cause confusion in hailing the men aloft, from the similarity of its sound tobunt-line.